设计模式-行为型-观察者模式

  1. 1. 观察者模式原理
  2. 2. 探究异步非阻塞的EventBus框架
    1. 2.1 基本的异步非阻塞模式
    2. 2.2 EventBus功能需求
    3. 2.3 EventBus的实现
  • 创建型设计模式
    • 解决对象创建的问题
  • 结构型设计模式

    • 解决类或者对象的组合或组装问题
  • 行为型设计模式

    • 解决类或对象之间的交互问题

1. 观察者模式原理

根据应用场景的不同,观察者模式是会有不同的代码实现的
+ 同步阻塞
+ 异步非阻塞
+ 进程内的实现方式
+ 跨进程的实现方式

  • 观察者模式 Observer Design Pattern
    • 发布订阅模式 Publish - Subscribe Design Pattern
    • Define a one-to-many dependency between objects so that when one object changes state, all its dependents are notified and updated automatically.
    • 角色划分
      • observable and observer
      • publisher and subscriber
      • producer and consumer
      • subject and observer
      • dispatcher and listener
      • eventEmitter and EventListener
// Example 
public interface RegObserver {
  void handleRegSuccess(long userId);
}

public class RegPromotionObserver implements RegObserver {
  private PromotionService promotionService; // 依赖注入

  @Override
  public void handleRegSuccess(long userId) {
    promotionService.issueNewUserExperienceCash(userId);
  }
}

public class RegNotificationObserver implements RegObserver {
  private NotificationService notificationService;

  @Override
  public void handleRegSuccess(long userId) {
    notificationService.sendInboxMessage(userId, "Welcome...");
  }
}

public class UserController {
  private UserService userService; // 依赖注入
  private List<RegObserver> regObservers = new ArrayList<>();

  // 一次性设置好,之后也不可能动态的修改
  public void setRegObservers(List<RegObserver> observers) {
    regObservers.addAll(observers);
  }

  public Long register(String telephone, String password) {
    //省略输入参数的校验代码
    //省略userService.register()异常的try-catch代码
    long userId = userService.register(telephone, password);

    for (RegObserver observer : regObservers) {
      observer.handleRegSuccess(userId);
    }

    return userId;
  }
}

2. 探究异步非阻塞的EventBus框架

2.1 基本的异步非阻塞模式

// 第一种实现方式,其他类代码不变,就没有再重复罗列
public class RegPromotionObserver implements RegObserver {
  private PromotionService promotionService; // 依赖注入

  @Override
  public void handleRegSuccess(long userId) {
    Thread thread = new Thread(new Runnable() {
      @Override
      public void run() {
        promotionService.issueNewUserExperienceCash(userId);
      }
    });
    thread.start();
  }
}

// 第二种实现方式,其他类代码不变,就没有再重复罗列
public class UserController {
  private UserService userService; // 依赖注入
  private List<RegObserver> regObservers = new ArrayList<>();
  private Executor executor;

  public UserController(Executor executor) {
    this.executor = executor;
  }

  public void setRegObservers(List<RegObserver> observers) {
    regObservers.addAll(observers);
  }

  public Long register(String telephone, String password) {
    //省略输入参数的校验代码
    //省略userService.register()异常的try-catch代码
    long userId = userService.register(telephone, password);

    for (RegObserver observer : regObservers) {
      executor.execute(new Runnable() {
        @Override
        public void run() {
          observer.handleRegSuccess(userId);
        }
      });
    }

    return userId;
  }
}
  • 方法1

    • 频繁创建销毁线程比较耗时
    • 并且创建过多线程会导致堆栈溢出
  • 方法2

    • 线程池,异步执行的逻辑耦合在了register()函数当中,维护成本会提高

2.2 EventBus功能需求

以google guava eventBus为例

public class UserController {
  private UserService userService; // 依赖注入

  private EventBus eventBus;
  private static final int DEFAULT_EVENTBUS_THREAD_POOL_SIZE = 20;

  public UserController() {
    //eventBus = new EventBus(); // 同步阻塞模式
    eventBus = new AsyncEventBus(Executors.newFixedThreadPool(DEFAULT_EVENTBUS_THREAD_POOL_SIZE)); // 异步非阻塞模式
  }

  public void setRegObservers(List<Object> observers) {
    for (Object observer : observers) {
      eventBus.register(observer);
    }
  }

  public Long register(String telephone, String password) {
    //省略输入参数的校验代码
    //省略userService.register()异常的try-catch代码
    long userId = userService.register(telephone, password);

    eventBus.post(userId);

    return userId;
  }
}

public class RegPromotionObserver {
  private PromotionService promotionService; // 依赖注入

  @Subscribe
  public void handleRegSuccess(long userId) {
    promotionService.issueNewUserExperienceCash(userId);
  }
}

public class RegNotificationObserver {
  private NotificationService notificationService;

  @Subscribe
  public void handleRegSuccess(long userId) {
    notificationService.sendInboxMessage(userId, "...");
  }
}
  • 使用EventBus框架实现的观察者模式,大流程上相同,但是区别在于
    • 不用定义Observer接口了
    • 任意类型的对象都可以注册到EventBus当中,通过@Subscribe注解来标明类当中哪个函数可以接收被观察者发送的消息
  • EventBus, AsyncEventBus
    • Guava EventBus 的所有可调用接口
EventBus eventBus = new EventBus(); // 同步阻塞模式
EventBus eventBus = new AsyncEventBus(Executors.newFixedThreadPool(8));// 异步阻塞模式
  • register()函数

    • 用来注册观察者
    • 可以接受任何类型的观察者
  • unregister()函数

    • 删除某个观察者
  • post()函数

    • 用于给观察者发送消息
  • @Subscribe注解

    • 通过注解说明某个函数能够接收哪种类型的消息

最关键的一个数据结构是 Observer 注册表,记录了消息类型和可接收消息函数的对应关系。当调用 register() 函数注册观察者的时候,EventBus 通过解析 @Subscribe 注解,生成 Observer 注册表。当调用 post() 函数发送消息的时候,EventBus 通过注册表找到相应的可接收消息的函数,然后通过 Java 的反射语法来动态地创建对象、执行函数。对于同步阻塞模式,EventBus 在一个线程内依次执行相应的函数。对于异步非阻塞模式,EventBus 通过一个线程池来执行相应的函数。

2.3 EventBus的实现

  1. Subscirbe 注解

用于标明观察者中的哪个函数可以接收信息

@Retention(RetentionPolicy.RUNTIME)
@Target(ElementType.METHOD)
@Beta
public @interface Subscribe {}
  1. ObserverAction

ObserverAction类用来表示Subscribe注解的方法,其中target表示观察者类,method表示方法,主要用在ObserverRegistry观察者注册表当中。

public class ObserverAction {
  private Object target;
  private Method method;

  public ObserverAction(Object target, Method method) {
    this.target = Preconditions.checkNotNull(target);
    this.method = method;
    this.method.setAccessible(true);
  }

  public void execute(Object event) { // event是method方法的参数
    try {
      method.invoke(target, event);
    } catch (InvocationTargetException | IllegalAccessException e) {
      e.printStackTrace();
    }
  }
}
  1. ObserverRegistry

Observer注册表类,大量使用Java的反射语法

public class ObserverRegistry {
  private ConcurrentMap<Class<?>, CopyOnWriteArraySet<ObserverAction>> registry = new ConcurrentHashMap<>();

  public void register(Object observer) {
    Map<Class<?>, Collection<ObserverAction>> observerActions = findAllObserverActions(observer);
    for (Map.Entry<Class<?>, Collection<ObserverAction>> entry : observerActions.entrySet()) {
      Class<?> eventType = entry.getKey();
      Collection<ObserverAction> eventActions = entry.getValue();
      CopyOnWriteArraySet<ObserverAction> registeredEventActions = registry.get(eventType);
      if (registeredEventActions == null) {
        registry.putIfAbsent(eventType, new CopyOnWriteArraySet<>());
        registeredEventActions = registry.get(eventType);
      }
      registeredEventActions.addAll(eventActions);
    }
  }

  public List<ObserverAction> getMatchedObserverActions(Object event) {
    List<ObserverAction> matchedObservers = new ArrayList<>();
    Class<?> postedEventType = event.getClass();
    for (Map.Entry<Class<?>, CopyOnWriteArraySet<ObserverAction>> entry : registry.entrySet()) {
      Class<?> eventType = entry.getKey();
      Collection<ObserverAction> eventActions = entry.getValue();
      if (postedEventType.isAssignableFrom(eventType)) {
        matchedObservers.addAll(eventActions);
      }
    }
    return matchedObservers;
  }

  private Map<Class<?>, Collection<ObserverAction>> findAllObserverActions(Object observer) {
    Map<Class<?>, Collection<ObserverAction>> observerActions = new HashMap<>();
    Class<?> clazz = observer.getClass();
    for (Method method : getAnnotatedMethods(clazz)) {
      Class<?>[] parameterTypes = method.getParameterTypes();
      Class<?> eventType = parameterTypes[0];
      if (!observerActions.containsKey(eventType)) {
        observerActions.put(eventType, new ArrayList<>());
      }
      observerActions.get(eventType).add(new ObserverAction(observer, method));
    }
    return observerActions;
  }

  private List<Method> getAnnotatedMethods(Class<?> clazz) {
    List<Method> annotatedMethods = new ArrayList<>();
    for (Method method : clazz.getDeclaredMethods()) {
      if (method.isAnnotationPresent(Subscribe.class)) {
        Class<?>[] parameterTypes = method.getParameterTypes();
        Preconditions.checkArgument(parameterTypes.length == 1,
                "Method %s has @Subscribe annotation but has %s parameters."
                        + "Subscriber methods must have exactly 1 parameter.",
                method, parameterTypes.length);
        annotatedMethods.add(method);
      }
    }
    return annotatedMethods;
  }
}
  1. EventBus
public class EventBus {
  private Executor executor;
  private ObserverRegistry registry = new ObserverRegistry();

  public EventBus() {
    this(MoreExecutors.directExecutor());
  }

  protected EventBus(Executor executor) {
    this.executor = executor;
  }

  public void register(Object object) {
    registry.register(object);
  }

  public void post(Object event) {
    List<ObserverAction> observerActions = registry.getMatchedObserverActions(event);
    for (ObserverAction observerAction : observerActions) {
      executor.execute(new Runnable() {
        @Override
        public void run() {
          observerAction.execute(event);
        }
      });
    }
  }
}
  1. AsyncEventBus
public class AsyncEventBus extends EventBus {
  public AsyncEventBus(Executor executor) {
    super(executor);
  }
}

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文章标题:设计模式-行为型-观察者模式

文章字数:1.6k

本文作者:Leilei Chen

发布时间:2020-06-29, 20:48:34

最后更新:2020-06-30, 20:21:33

原始链接:https://www.llchen60.com/%E8%AE%BE%E8%AE%A1%E6%A8%A1%E5%BC%8F-%E8%A1%8C%E4%B8%BA%E5%9E%8B-%E8%A7%82%E5%AF%9F%E8%80%85%E6%A8%A1%E5%BC%8F/

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